Tables for Cannon & Artillery Projectiles

Information obtained from The Confederate Ordnance Manual pages 367-369 and The Artillerist Manual pages 455-462.

Ranges for a 6-PDR. and 12-PDR. Shot or Shell

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

6 - PDR FIELD GUN

 

1.25

 

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

318

674

867

1,138

1,256

1,523

Point Blank Range

 

1.00

Sph.-case

"

"

2

2 30

3

650

840

1,050

" 2 "

" 3 "

" 4 "

1.25

Sph-case

"

"

"

"

"

"

1 0

1 45

2 0

2 45

3 0

3 15

4

600

700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

Time, 2 Seconds

" 2 3/4 " " 3 "

" 3 1/4 "

" 3 3/4 "

" 4 "

" 5 "

12 - PDR. FIELD GUN, MODEL 1841

2.5

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

1 30

2

3

4

5

347

662

785

909

1,269

1,455

1,663

Point Blank Range

1.5

Sph.-case.

"

"

1

1 45

2 30

670

950

1,250

" 2 "

" 3 "

" 4 "

2.5

Sph.-case

"

"

"

"

"

"

1

1 45

2

2 15

2 30

3

3 30

600

700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

Time, 1 3/4 Second

" 2 1/2 "

" 2 3/4 "

" 3 "

" 3 1/4 "

" 4 "

" 4 1/2 "

12 - PDR FIELD GUN, Napoleon

2.5

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

325

620

875

1,200

1,320

1,680

 
 

2.5

Sph.-case

shot

"

"

"

"

"

0 30

1 0

1 30

2 0

3 0

3 30

3 45

300

575

633

730

690

1,080

1,135

Time, 1 Second

" 1 3/4 "

" 2 1/2 "

" 3 "

" 4 "

" 4 3/4 "

" 5 "

2.0

Shell

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

0 30

1

1 30

2 0

2 30

3 0

3 45

300

425

616

700

787

925

1,080

1,300

" 0 3/4 "

" 1 1/4 "

" 1 3/4 "

" 2 1/4 "

" 2 3/4 "

" 3 1/4 "

" 4 "

" 5 "

6 & 12 PDR. Ranges--Continued

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

12 - PDR. FIELD HOWITZER

1.0

Shell

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

195

539

640

847

975

1,072

 

 

0.75

Sph.-case

"

"

2 15

3 15

3 45

485

715

1,050

 

Time, 3 Seconds

" 4 "

12 - PDR. MOUNTAIN HOWITZER

0.5

Shell

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

2 30

3

4

5

170

300

392

500

637

785

1,005

 

 

 

Time, 2 Seconds

" 3 "

0.5

Canister

4 to 5

250

 

 

0.5

Sph.-case

"

"

"

"

0

2 30

3

4

4 30

150

450

500

700

800

 

Time, 2 Seconds

" 2 3/4 " " 3 "

24 - PDR. FIELD HOWITZER

2.0

Shell

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

295

516

793

976

1,272

1,322

 

 

2.5

Sph.-case

"

"

"

"

"

"

1 30

2

2 30

2 45

3 15

3 45

3 50

600

700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

Time, 2 Second.

" 2 1/2 "

" 3 1/4 "

" 3 1/2 "

" 4 "

" 4 1/2 "

" 4 3/4 "

32 -PDR. FIELD HOWITZER

2.5

Shell

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

290

531

779

1,029

1,506

1,504

 

 

3.5

Sph.-case

"

"

"

"

"

"

1 30

2

2 15

2 45

3

3 35

3 45

600

700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

Time, 2 Second.

" 2 1/2 "

" 3 "

" 3 1/2 "

" 3 3/4 "

" 4 1/2 "

" 4 3/4 "

Ranges for Garrison, Sea Coast,
Howitzers, and Columbiad Guns

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

18 - PDR. SIEGE & GARRISON GUN

On barbette carriage

4.5

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

1

1 30

2

3

4

5

641

800

950

1,256

1,450

1,592

Point Blank Range

24 - PDR. SIEGE & GARRISON GUN

On siege carriage

6.0

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

1 30

2

3

4

5

412

842

953

1,147

1,417

1,666

1,901

Point Blank Range

 

6.0

Shot

1 45

900

 

32 - PDR. SIEGE & GARRISON GUN

On siege carriage

8.0

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

1

1 30

1 35

2

3

4

5

713

800

900

1,100

1,433

1,684

1,922

 

42 - PDR. SEA- COAST GUN

On barbette carriage

10.5

Shot

"

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

775

1,010

1,300

1,600

1,955

 

8 - INCH SIEGE HOWITZER

On siege carriage

4.0

Shell,

45 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

12 30

251

435

618

720

992

1,241

2,280

 

8 - INCH SEA-COAST HOWITZER

On barbette carriage

4.0

 

 

 

 

Shell,

45 lbs.

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

405

652

875

1,110

1,300

 

 

8 - INCH SEA-COAST HOWITZER

On barbette carriage Continued

6.0

"

"

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

572

828

947

1,168

1,463

 

8.0

"

"

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

646

909

1,190

1,532

1,800

 

10 - INCH SEA-COAST HOWITZER

On barbette carriage

12.0

Shell,

90 lbs.

"

"

"

"

1

2

3

3 30

4

5

580

891

1,185

1,300

1,426

1,650

 

Time, 3 Seconds

" 4 "

" 5 1/4 "

" 6 "

8 - INCH COLUMBIAD*

10.0

Shell,

50 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

20

25

30

681

1,108

1,400

1,649

1,733

1,994

2,061

2,250

2,454

2,664

2,718

2,908

3,060

3,123

3,138

3,330

3,474

3,873

Time, 1.88 Seconds

" 3.58 "

" 4.30 "

" 5.41 "

" 6.25 "

" 7.56 "

" 7.96 "

" 9.12 "

" 10.16 "

" 10.91 "

" 11.3 "

" 13. "

" 14.08 "

" 14.25 "

" 16. "

" 18.40 "

" 20. "

" 25. "

10.0

Shot

"

5

15

1,697

3,224

" 6.20 "

" 14.19 "

10 - INCH COLUMBIAD*

15.0

Shell,

100 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

3

5

8

10

12

20

30

1,068

1,525

2,238

2,720

2,847

3,842

4,836

Time, 3.20 seconds

" 5.64 "

" 8.10 "

" 10.98 "

" 11.73 "

" 18.92 "

" 27.50 "

 

15.0

Shot,

125 lbs.

15

30

3,281

5,163

" 14.32 "

" 27.08 "

10 - INCH COLUMBIAD Continued

(Axis of gun 6 feet above the horizontal plane.)

18.0

Shot,

125 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

15

20

25

30

35

394

752

1,002

1,230

1,570

1,814

2,037

2,519

2,777

3,525

4,020

4,304

4,761

5,433

Axis of gun 16 feet above the water.

 

 

 

Shot ceased to ricochet on water.

 

20.0

Shot, 125 lbs.

39 15

5,654

 

Columbiad Ranges--Continued

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

10 - INCH COLUMBIAD

Continued

12.0

Shell,

100 lbs.

"

"

"

1

2

3

4

5

800

1,012

1,184

1,443

1,604

 

18.0

Shell,

100 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

15

20

25

30

35

448

747

1,100

1,239

1,611

1,865

2,209

2,489

2,848

3,200

3,885

4,150

4,651

4,828

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time of flight, 35 seconds

*12-INCH COLUMBIAD

*The Artillerist Manual

, page 461.

20.0

Shell,

172 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

10

15

22

25

30

35

37

2770

3731

4280

4718

5004

5339

5266

Time 11 seconds

" 16 "

" 20 "

" 26 "

" 32 "

" 31 "

15 - INCH COLUMBIAD

40.0

Shell,

302 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

273

484

812

1,136

1,310

1,518

1,760

1,948

 

15 - INCH COLUMBIAD Continued

40.0

Shell,

315 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

8

9

10

12

15

20

25

28

30

2,194

2,236

2,425

2,831

3,078

3,838

4,528

4,821

5,018

 

Time, 8.87 seconds

" 10.00 "

" 12.07 "

" 13.72 "

" 17.82 "

" 22.03 "

" 24.18 "

" 26.71 "

45

"

25

4,595

" 23.20 "

50

"

25

4,680

" 23.29 "

Information below obtained from the C. S. Ordnance Manual pages 370-373.

Ranges for Mortar Balls

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

24 - PDR. COEHORN MORTAR

Ounces

0.5

1.0

1.5

1.75

2.0

2.75

4.0

6.0

8.0

 

Shell,

17 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

 

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

 

25

68

104

143

165

260

422

900

1,200

 

8 - INCH SIEGE MORTAR

Lbs. Oz.

0 10

0 13

1 0

1 2

1 3

1 4

1 6

Shell,

46 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

500

600

750

900

1,000

1,100

1,200

Time, 10 seconds

" 11 "

" 12 1/4 "

" 13 "

" 13 1/2 "

" 14 "

" 14 1/2 "

10 - INCH SEA-COAST

MORTAR

10.0

Shell,

98 lbs.

45

4,250

Time, 36.0 seconds

10 - INCH SIEGE MORTAR

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Shell,

90 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

300

700

1,000

1,300

1,600

1,800

2,100

Time, 6.5 seconds

" 12.0 "

" 14.0 "

" 16.0 "

" 18.0 "

" 19.0 "

" 21.0 "

13 - INCH SEA-COAST MORTAR

20.0

Shell,

200 lbs.

45

4,325

Time 40 seconds

Information obtained from the C. S. Ordnance Manual page 373.


Ranges of Rifled Cannon

The range of a solid shot or shell in this table was determined by the distance from the muzzle of the gun to the first point of impact made on horizontal ground, with the gun on its appropriate field carriage.

The range of a spherical case shot is determined by the distance at which the shell bursts near the ground in the time given, thus showing the elevation and the length of fuze required for certain distances.

Tables taken from Instruction For Field Artillery, 1864, pages 31-32, and Military Dictionary by Colonel H. L. Scott, 1864, pages 522, 526, and 531. The author has found several discrepancies in range tables from his sources.

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

3-inch ordnance rifle (Length of bore, 65 inches; diameter of bore, 3 inches; weight of gun, 820 pounds)

1

Case-shot

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

380

645

1,010

1,310

1,525

1,835

2,100

2,325

2,400

2,910

2,970

3,110

3,270

3,410

3,710

3,820

4,180

Time 1.5 seconds

" 2.0 "

" 3.3 "

" 4.3 "

" 5.0 "

" 6.5 "

" 7.8 "

" 8.5 "

" 10.0 "

" 11.0 "

" 11.5 "

" 12.5 "

" 13.25 "

" 14.75 "

" 15.5 "

" 16.0 "

" 17.0 "

10-pounder Parrott rifle (Length of bore, 70 inches; diameter of bore, 2.9 inches; weight of gun, 900 pounds)

1

Case-shot,

10 1/2 lbs.

"

Shell,

9 3/4 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

0

1

2

2 30

3

3 30

4

4 30

5

5 30

6

7

10

12

15

20

25

30

35

260

600

900

1,100

1,300

1,500

1,600

1,700

1,950

2,150

2,300

2,600

3,000

3,600

4,200

5,000

5,600

5,900

6,200

Time seconds

" 1.0 "

" 2.0 "

" 3.0 "

" 3.25 "

" 4.0 "

" 4.30 "

" 5.45 "

" 6.25 "

" 7.0 "

" 7.30 "

" 8.30 "

" 10.30 "

" 13.0 "

" 16.0 "

" 20.0 "

" 23.30 "

" 27.30 "

" 31.30 "

*10-pounder Parrott rifle (Length of bore, 70 inches; diameter of bore, 2.9 inches; weight of gun, 900 pounds)

*Information from Ranges Of Parrott Guns, And Notes For Practice, 1863, page 13.

1

Case-shot,

10 2 lbs.

Shell,

9 3/4 lbs.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

1

2

2 3/4

3 7/8

4 2

5

6

7

10

12

15

20

600

930

1,100

1,460

1,680

2,000

2,250

2,600

3,200

3,600

4,200

5,000

Time seconds

"3 "

"3 1/4 "

"4 3/4 "

"5 3/4 "

"6 1/2 "

"7 1/4 "

"8 1/4 "

"10 3/4 "

"12 7/8 "

"16 "

"21 "

20-pounder Parrott rifle (Length of bore, 79 inches; diameter of bore 3.67 inches; weight of gun, 1,800 pounds)

2

Case shot

(19 1/2 lbs.)

0

1

2

3 30

230

560

950

1,500

Time 0.75 second.

" 1.75 "

" 3.0 "

" 4.50 "

Ranges of Rifled Cannon--Continued

Description of pieces

Charge in pounds

Projectile
Type

Elevation in degrees & minutes

Range in yards

Remarks

20-pounder Parrott rifle

Continued

 

Shell

(18 lbs.)

3 37

5

6

10

15

1,500

2,200

2,200

3,300

4,500

" 4.75 "

" 7.0 "

" 11.82 "

" 17.20 "

4.5-inch ordnance rifle (Length of bore, 120 inches; diameter of bore, 4.50 inches; weight of gun, 3,450 pounds)

The shot (33 lbs.) here is the Dyer projectile. It was uncertain, striped its lead sabot, and was, in nearly all respects, inferior to that of Schenkl, which, was more certain, and gave about 10 per cent increase in range.

3 1/2

Shot

(33 lbs)

 

 

 

 

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

670

750

1,210

1,400

1,676

2,078

2,236

 
 

 

Shell

(Schenkl's percussion)

6 50

2,600

 
 

 

Shot

(33 lbs)

7

8

2,560

2,600

 
 

 

Shell

(Schenkl's percussion)

8 50

3,000

 

6-pounder bronze rifle (Length of bore, 57.5 inches; diameter of bore, 3.67 inches; weight of gun, 880 pounds)

1 1/2

Shot

(14 lbs.)

2 15

1,000

 
12-pounder Siege rifle (Length of bore, 109 inches; diameter of bore, 4.854 inches; weight of gun, 5,000 pounds)

3

Shot

(22 lbs.)

2 15

4 30

1,000

2,000

 
24-pounder Sawyer rifle (Length of bore, 110 inches; diameter of bore, 5.862 inches; weight of gun, 8,822 pounds)

5 1/2

Shot

(45 lbs.)

2

13 1/2

1,000

2,000

Time 6 seconds

12-pounder Armstrong rifle (Diameter of bore, 3 inches; weight of gun, 8 cwt.)

1 1/2

Shell

 

5

Average

1,918

 
*4-inch Armstrong rifle (Determined at West Point, New York, in 1860)

3 5/8

Solid

(29 lbs.)

5

7

10

12

15

20

25

30

35

2,099

2,894

3,700

4,196

4,776

6,070

6,580

7,555

9,000

7.5

9.1

11.6

14.2

17.1

21.4

25.0

31.0

3-pounder Whitworth rifle (Length of bore, 72 inches; diameter of bore, 1.7-inches; weight of gun, 208 pounds)

Ounces

7 1/2

Shot

 

3

10

20

35

Averages

1,580

4,174

6,793

9,352

 
12-pounder Whitworth breech-loading rifle (Length of bore, 104 inches; smallest diameter of bore, 2.75 inches; weight of gun, 1,100 pounds)

1 3/4

Shot

 

2

5

10

35

Averages

1,254

2,324

4,027

10,000

 
70-pounder Whitworth rifle (Length of bore, 114 inches; diameter of bore, 5 inches; weight of gun, 16,660 pounds) Also referred to as a 80-pounder.

 

10

 

 

13

Shot

(90 lbs.)

 

 

Shot

 

5

7

10

10

Averages

2,574

3,492

4,555

5,000

 

*The Ordnance Manual For The Use Of The Officers Of The Confederate States Army, page 526.

Range of Hale's War Rockets

Elevation in degrees

Range in yards (First graze) 2 1/4 inch

Range in yards (First graze) 3 1/4 inch

Remarks

4 to 5

8

10

15

47

500 to 600

700

800 to 900

1,200

1,760

500 to 600

800 to 1,000

1,000 to 1,200

1,200 to 1,400

2,200

The rockets were fired from a trough 10 feet long.

Weight of 2 1/4-inch rocket (6 lbs.)

Weight of 3 1/4-inch rocket (16 lbs.)

The information below was obtained from the

The Field Manual For The Use Of The Officers On Ordnance Duty, Richmond: 1862, page 121.

Bursting And Propellant Charges For Rifled Projectiles
Employed In The Confederate Army

Description of piece

Service bursting charge in pounds

Service propellant charge in pounds

7-inch rifle

2.5

12.0

7.44-inch Blakely

2.75

12.0

6.40-inch rifle (Columbiad)

2.0

11.0

6.40-inch rifle (32-pounder)

1.5

7.0

5.82-inch rifle (Columbiad)

1.75

8.0

*4.2-inch (30-pounder Parrott)

1.5

3.5

4.62-inch Siege rifle

1.43

4.0

*2.9-inch (10-pounder Parrott)

0.43

1.0

3-inch rifle

0.37

1.0

*3.80-inch James rifle

0.34

1.5

3.5-inch 12-pounder Blakely rifle

0.12

1.25

5.3-inch rifle (18-pounder)

1.0

4.0

*3.67-inch (20-pounder Parrott)

0.75

2.00

2.50-inch Blakely steel rifle

0.12

0.50

12-pounder Whitworth breech-loading rifle

0.31

1.75

*Dahlgren bronze rifle

Solid shot

0.50

4-pounder Virginia State rifle

0.43

1.00

12-pounder Virginia State rifle

0.75

1.25

*Those marked with an asterisk are captured Federal guns.

The "State rifles" are Virginia pieces, cast iron, rifled and banded.

Charges For Field-Guns and Field-Howitzers

Description of pieces

Shot (Lbs.)

Spherical Case or Canister (Lbs.)

Shells, Small Charge (Lbs.)

Shells, Large Charge (Lbs.)

6 - PDR FIELD GUN

1.25

1.00

--

--

12- PDR FIELD GUN

2.50

1.50

--

--

MOUNTAIN HOWITZER

--

0.05

0.05

0.05

12 - PDR HOWITZER

--

0.75

1.00

1.00

24 - PDR HOWITZER

--

1.75

2.00

2.50

32 - PDR HOWITZER

--

2.50

2.50

3.25

Charges For Heavy Guns, Columbiads, and Howitzers

Description of pieces

Gun Size

Charge in pounds

GUNS

12 - PDR

4.0

18 - PDR

6.0

24 - PDR

8.0

32 - PDR

8.0

42 - PDR

10.5

COLUMBIADS

8 - INCH

8.0

10 - INCH

14.0

HOWITZER

SIEGE 8 - INCH

4.0

24 - PDR GARRISON

2.0

HOWITZER - SEA COAST

8 - INCH

8.0

10 - INCH

12.0

 

Greatest Charges of Sea-Coast, Siege, and Coehorn Mortars

Description of pieces

Mortar Size

Charge in pounds

SEA - COAST

10 - INCH

10.0

13 - INCH

20.0

SIEGE

8 - INCH

2.0

10 - INCH

4.0

COEHORN

--

0.05

STONE MORTAR

120 Lbs. of Stones

1.5

15 6-PDR Shells

1.0

 

Initial Velocities of Cannon Balls

Description of pieces

Projectile

Charge in Pounds

Initial Velocity in Ft.

Type

Weight in Pounds

6 - PDR FIELD-GUN

Shot

"

"

6.15

"

"

1.25

1.50

2.00

1,439

1,563

1,741

Spherical-Case

Canister

5.5

6.8

1.00

1.00

1,357

1,230

12 - PDR FIELD GUN

Shot

"

"

12.3

"

"

2.50

3.00

4.00

1,486

1,597

1,826

Spherical-Case

Canister

11.0

13.5

2.00

2.00

1,392

1,262

12 - PDR FIELD HOWITZER

Shot

"

8.9

"

1.00

1.25

1,054

1,178

Spherical-Case

Canister

11.0

9.64

1.00

1.00

953

1,015

12 - PDR SIEGE & GARRISON GUN

Shot

"

"

12.3

"

"

2.00

3.00

4.00

1,378

1,674

1,906

Shell

8.9

2.00

3.00

1,611

1,929

12 - PDR GUN, 25 CALIBERS LONG

Shot

"

"

"

"

"

"

12.3

"

"

"

"

"

"

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

1,411

1,734

1,933

2,098

2,239

2,300

2,324

Initial Velocities of Cannon Balls -- Continued

 

Description of pieces

Projectile

Charge in Pounds

Initial Velocity in Ft.

Type

Weight in Pounds

24 - PDR SIEGE & GARRISON GUN

Shot

"

"

"

24.25

"

"

"

3.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

1,240

1,440

1,680

1,870

Shell

"

17.0

"

3.00

4.00

1,470

1,670

Canister

"

29.0

"

3.00

4.00

1,135

1,303

Grape

"

30.6

"

3.00

4.00

1,108

1,272

12 - PDR SEA - COAST GUN

Shot

"

"

"

32.3

"

"

"

4.00

5.33

8.00

10.67

1,250

1,430

1,640

1,780

Shell

"

23.4

"

4.00

5.33

1,450

1,657

Canister

"

37.0

"

4.00

5.33

1,172

1,342

Grape

"

39.75

4.00

5.33

1,133

1,297

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